双语:韦氏词典新增250个词汇 “物联网”等词在列

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来源: 中国日报 编辑:常青 2017-09-28 17:22:31

  Merriam-Webster gets spicy and political with new dictionary words

  

  最新增补的词汇中有alt-right和troll两个可以互补的词汇,也是对边缘运动走向主流的悲观评论。

  " Alt-right" is defined as "a right-wing, primarily online political movement or grouping based in the US whose members reject mainstream conservative politics and espouse extremist beliefs and policies typically centered on ideas of white nationalism."

  Alt-right指“立足于美国的一个右翼、以在线联络为主的政治运动或集合体。其成员拒绝主流保守政治、赞成极端主义者信念和政策,通常这种信念和政策以白人民族主义理念为核心”,即“另类右翼”。

  In this light, " troll" gets a new meaning: "to antagonize (others) online by deliberately posting inflammatory, irrelevant, or offensive comments or other disruptive content" and "to harass, criticize, or antagonize (someone) especially by provocatively disparaging or mocking public statements, postings, or acts."

  就此而论,troll则有了新的含义:“蓄意在线发布有煽动性,不相关或冒犯性评论,或其他破坏性内容来引起(其他人)对抗”,以及“通过煽动性诽谤或嘲笑公众性言论、帖子或行为来妨碍、批评或引起(某些人)对抗”,即“网络喷子”。

  We also have " dog whistle" of canine origin, which, in a political context, gets the additional meaning: "an expression or statement that has a secondary meaning intended to be understood only by a particular group of people."

  新增词汇中还有与狗狗“同源”的“狗哨”一词,“狗哨”在政治语境中有另一层含义:“一种表达或陈述,其言下之意只求某一特定人群理解。”

  Moving on to technology, Merriam-Webster finally takes on board two terms that have dominated headlines in the past few years.

  再看看科技类新词。韦氏词典终于收录了在过去几年屡次霸占头条的两个新词。

  First, the " Internet of Things" or "IoT", defined as "the networking capability that allows information to be sent to and received from objects and devices (such as fixtures and kitchen appliances) using the Internet."

  首先是“物联网”,缩写为IoT,意思是允许信息通过互联网在物体和设备间(比如通过固定装置和厨房电器)发送和接收的网络性能。

  Then, the dictionary offers a definition of " ransomware" as "malware that requires the victim to pay a ransom to access encrypted file."

  韦氏词典给“勒索软件”的定义是:“要求受害者交付赎金以访问加密文件的恶意软件。”

  There are also new business and sport terms that have been in use for a while, such as " onboarding" and " bunny." Now " Hive Mind," which started as a biological term to describe colonies of bees and ants, has evolved to define "the collective thoughts, ideas, and opinions of a group of people (such as Internet users) regarded as functioning together as a single mind."

  新增词汇中也有一些已经使用一段时间的商业和体育词汇,比如“onboarding”(指新人入职后经历的适应新环境的过程)和“bunny”(某项体育运动的爱好者)。现在又有了“蜂巢思维(Hive Mind)”,原本用于生物界,用来形容蜜蜂和蚂蚁的聚居地,如今再添新意:指网民等人群的集体思想、观念和意见被视为一个单一思想共同发挥作用。

  Let's get to a spicy conclusion with " sriracha," which is defined as "a pungent sauce that is made from hot peppers pureed with usually garlic, sugar, salt, and vinegar and that is typically used as a condiment."

  让我们以“是拉差辣椒酱”来做个麻辣小结。“是拉差辣椒酱”指的是“一种用辣椒制成的辣酱,通常会拌上蒜末、糖、盐和醋,用来调味。”

  此次韦氏词典还新增了“韩式石锅拌饭”(bibimbap)、“冻酸奶”(froyo)等在美国流行的饮食词汇。

  韦氏词典副主编艾米丽-布鲁斯特说:

  “Our job as lexicographers is to follow the development of language, defining the words people are likely to encounter. These new words have been added to the dictionary because they have established themselves in the English language, and are part of the current, active vocabulary of America.”

  “作为词典编纂者,我们的任务是紧跟语言发展,定义人们很可能遇到的词汇。”这些新词已经确定了自己在英语中的地位,成为美国当下活跃词汇的一部分,因此被添加进来。”

  英文来源:mashable.com

  翻译&编审:yaning

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